297 Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree
Serialization is the process of converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits
so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link
to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.
Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary tree.
There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work.
You just need to ensure that a binary tree can be serialized to a string and this string
can be deserialized to the original tree structure.
You may serialize the following tree:
Clarification: The above format is the same as how LeetCode serializes a binary tree.
You do not necessarily need to follow this format, so please be creative and come up with different approaches yourself.
Do not use class member/global/static variables to store states.
Your serialize and deserialize algorithms should be stateless.
For serialization, we start from the root node. If the node exists, store the value in the output string stream, and then recursively call the serialization function on its left and right child nodes.
For deserialization, we first read in the first character to generate a root node, and then recursively call the deserialization function on the left and right child nodes of the root node.