2068. Check Whether Two Strings are Almost Equivalent

Description

Two strings word1 and word2 are considered almost equivalent if the differences between the frequencies of each letter from 'a' to 'z' between word1 and word2 is at most 3.

Given two strings word1 and word2, each of length n, return true if word1 and word2 are almost equivalent, or false otherwise.

The frequency of a letter x is the number of times it occurs in the string.

Example 1:

Input: word1 = "aaaa", word2 = "bccb"
Output: false
Explanation: There are 4 'a's in "aaaa" but 0 'a's in "bccb".
The difference is 4, which is more than the allowed 3.


Example 2:

Input: word1 = "abcdeef", word2 = "abaaacc"
Output: true
Explanation: The differences between the frequencies of each letter in word1 and word2 are at most 3:
- 'a' appears 1 time in word1 and 4 times in word2. The difference is 3.
- 'b' appears 1 time in word1 and 1 time in word2. The difference is 0.
- 'c' appears 1 time in word1 and 2 times in word2. The difference is 1.
- 'd' appears 1 time in word1 and 0 times in word2. The difference is 1.
- 'e' appears 2 times in word1 and 0 times in word2. The difference is 2.
- 'f' appears 1 time in word1 and 0 times in word2. The difference is 1.


Example 3:

Input: word1 = "cccddabba", word2 = "babababab"
Output: true
Explanation: The differences between the frequencies of each letter in word1 and word2 are at most 3:
- 'a' appears 2 times in word1 and 4 times in word2. The difference is 2.
- 'b' appears 2 times in word1 and 5 times in word2. The difference is 3.
- 'c' appears 3 times in word1 and 0 times in word2. The difference is 3.
- 'd' appears 2 times in word1 and 0 times in word2. The difference is 2.


Constraints:

• n == word1.length == word2.length
• 1 <= n <= 100
• word1 and word2 consist only of lowercase English letters.

Solutions

Solution 1: Counting

We can create an array $cnt$ of length $26$ to record the difference in the number of times each letter appears in the two strings. Then we traverse $cnt$, if any letter appears the difference in the number of times greater than $3$, then return false, otherwise return true.

The time complexity is $O(n)$ and the space complexity is $O(C)$. Where $n$ is the length of the string, and $C$ is the size of the character set, and in this question $C = 26$.

• class Solution {
public boolean checkAlmostEquivalent(String word1, String word2) {
int[] cnt = new int[26];
for (int i = 0; i < word1.length(); ++i) {
++cnt[word1.charAt(i) - 'a'];
}
for (int i = 0; i < word2.length(); ++i) {
--cnt[word2.charAt(i) - 'a'];
}
for (int x : cnt) {
if (Math.abs(x) > 3) {
return false;
}
}
return true;
}
}

• class Solution {
public:
bool checkAlmostEquivalent(string word1, string word2) {
int cnt[26]{};
for (char& c : word1) {
++cnt[c - 'a'];
}
for (char& c : word2) {
--cnt[c - 'a'];
}
for (int i = 0; i < 26; ++i) {
if (abs(cnt[i]) > 3) {
return false;
}
}
return true;
}
};

• class Solution:
def checkAlmostEquivalent(self, word1: str, word2: str) -> bool:
cnt = Counter(word1)
for c in word2:
cnt[c] -= 1
return all(abs(x) <= 3 for x in cnt.values())


• func checkAlmostEquivalent(word1 string, word2 string) bool {
cnt := [26]int{}
for _, c := range word1 {
cnt[c-'a']++
}
for _, c := range word2 {
cnt[c-'a']--
}
for _, x := range cnt {
if x > 3 || x < -3 {
return false
}
}
return true
}

• function checkAlmostEquivalent(word1: string, word2: string): boolean {
const cnt: number[] = new Array(26).fill(0);
for (const c of word1) {
++cnt[c.charCodeAt(0) - 97];
}
for (const c of word2) {
--cnt[c.charCodeAt(0) - 97];
}
return cnt.every(x => Math.abs(x) <= 3);
}


• /**
* @param {string} word1
* @param {string} word2
* @return {boolean}
*/
var checkAlmostEquivalent = function (word1, word2) {
const m = new Map();
for (let i = 0; i < word1.length; i++) {
m.set(word1[i], (m.get(word1[i]) || 0) + 1);
m.set(word2[i], (m.get(word2[i]) || 0) - 1);
}
for (const v of m.values()) {
if (Math.abs(v) > 3) {
return false;
}
}
return true;
};


• class Solution {
/**
* @param String $word1 * @param String$word2
* @return Boolean
*/
function checkAlmostEquivalent($word1,$word2) {
for ($i = 0;$i < strlen($word1);$i++) {
$hashtable[$word1[$i]] += 1;$hashtable[$word2[$i]] -= 1;
}
$keys = array_keys($hashtable);
for ($j = 0;$j < count($keys);$j++) {
if (abs($hashtable[$keys[\$j]]) > 3) {
return false;
}
}
return true;
}
}


• public class Solution {
public bool CheckAlmostEquivalent(string word1, string word2) {
int[] cnt = new int[26];
foreach (var c in word1) {
cnt[c - 'a']++;
}
foreach (var c in word2) {
cnt[c - 'a']--;
}
return cnt.All(x => Math.Abs(x) <= 3);
}
}