Formatted question description: https://leetcode.ca/all/1236.html

1236. Web Crawler

Level

Medium

Description

Given a url startUrl and an interface HtmlParser, implement a web crawler to crawl all links that are under the same hostname as startUrl.

Return all urls obtained by your web crawler in any order.

Your crawler should:

  • Start from the page: startUrl
  • Call HtmlParser.getUrls(url) to get all urls from a webpage of given url.
  • Do not crawl the same link twice.
  • Explore only the links that are under the same hostname as startUrl.

Image text

As shown in the example url above, the hostname is example.org. For simplicity sake, you may assume all urls use http protocol without any port specified. For example, the urls http://leetcode.com/problems and http://leetcode.com/contest are under the same hostname, while urls http://example.org/test and http://example.com/abc are not under the same hostname.

The HtmlParser interface is defined as such:

interface HtmlParser {
  // Return a list of all urls from a webpage of given url.
  public List<String> getUrls(String url);
}

Below are two examples explaining the functionality of the problem, for custom testing purposes you’ll have three variables urls, edges and startUrl. Notice that you will only have access to startUrl in your code, while urls and edges are not directly accessible to you in code.

Example 1:

Image text

Input:
urls = [
  "http://news.yahoo.com",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news/topics/",
  "http://news.google.com",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/us"
]
edges = [[2,0],[2,1],[3,2],[3,1],[0,4]]
startUrl = "http://news.yahoo.com/news/topics/"
Output: [
  "http://news.yahoo.com",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news/topics/",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/us"
]

Example 2:

Image text

Input: 
urls = [
  "http://news.yahoo.com",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news",
  "http://news.yahoo.com/news/topics/",
  "http://news.google.com"
]
edges = [[0,2],[2,1],[3,2],[3,1],[3,0]]
startUrl = "http://news.google.com"
Output: ["http://news.google.com"]
Explanation: The startUrl links to all other pages that do not share the same hostname.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= urls.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= urls[i].length <= 300
  • startUrl is one of the urls.
  • Hostname label must be from 1 to 63 characters long, including the dots, may contain only the ASCII letters from ‘a’ to ‘z’, digits from ‘0’ to ‘9’ and the hyphen-minus character (‘-‘).
  • The hostname may not start or end with the hyphen-minus character (‘-‘).
  • See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hostname#Restrictions_on_valid_hostnames
  • You may assume there’re no duplicates in url library.

Solution

First, obtain the host name of startUrl. Then do breadth first search starting from startUrl, and only visit the links that has the same hostname as startUrl. Each time a link with the same hostname as startUrl is visited, add the link to the result list. Continue searching until no more links are discovered.

  • public class Web_Crawler {
    
        class Solution_dfs {
    
            Set<String> res = new HashSet<>(); // 返回结果
    
            public List<String> crawl(String startUrl, HtmlParser htmlParser) {
                String host = getUrlHost(startUrl); // 取得域名
                res.add(startUrl); // 将startUrl添加至返回结果
                dfs(startUrl, host, htmlParser); // 开始dfs
                return new ArrayList<>(res);
            }
    
            void dfs(String startUrl, String host, HtmlParser htmlParser) {
                // 取得当前页面包含的所有链接
                List<String> urls = htmlParser.getUrls(startUrl);
                // 通过每一个链接继续dfs
                for (String url : urls) {
                    // 如果该链接已经爬过或是与网站域名不一致时跳过
                    if (res.contains(url) || !getUrlHost(url).equals(host)) {
                        continue;
                    }
                    // 将该链接加入返回结果
                    res.add(url);
                    // 继续dfs
                    dfs(url, host, htmlParser);
                }
            }
    
            private String getUrlHost(String url) {
                String[] args = url.split("/");
                return args[2];
            }
        }
    
    
        class Solution_bfs {
            Set<String> res = new HashSet<>(); // 返回结果
    
            public List<String> crawl(String startUrl, HtmlParser htmlParser) {
                String host = getUrlHost(startUrl); // 取得域名
                Queue<String> q = new LinkedList<>(); // bfs用的queue
                res.add(startUrl); // 添加startUrl至返回结果
                q.offer(startUrl); // 添加startUrl至bfs的Queue
                while (q.size() > 0) {
                    String url = q.poll(); // 取得一个url
                    // 查看当前url包含的所有链接
                    List<String> urls = htmlParser.getUrls(url);
                    for (String u : urls) { // 循环每一个链接
                        // 如果该链接已经爬过或者不属于当前域名,跳过
                        if (res.contains(u) || !getUrlHost(u).equals(host)) {
                            continue;
                        }
                        res.add(u); // 添加该链接至返回结果
                        q.offer(u); // 添加该链接至bfs的Queue
                    }
                }
                return new ArrayList<>(res);
            }
    
            private String getUrlHost(String url) {
                String[] args = url.split("/");
                return args[2];
            }
        }
    
        interface HtmlParser {
            // Return a list of all urls from a webpage of given url.
            // This is a blocking call, that means it will do HTTP request and return when this request is finished.
            List<String> getUrls(String str);
        }
    }
    
  • Todo
    
  • print("Todo!")
    

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