Formatted question description: https://leetcode.ca/all/622.html

# 622. Design Circular Queue

Medium

## Description

Design your implementation of the circular queue. The circular queue is a linear data structure in which the operations are performed based on FIFO (First In First Out) principle and the last position is connected back to the first position to make a circle. It is also called “Ring Buffer”.

One of the benefits of the circular queue is that we can make use of the spaces in front of the queue. In a normal queue, once the queue becomes full, we cannot insert the next element even if there is a space in front of the queue. But using the circular queue, we can use the space to store new values.

Your implementation should support following operations:

• MyCircularQueue(k): Constructor, set the size of the queue to be k.
• Front: Get the front item from the queue. If the queue is empty, return -1.
• Rear: Get the last item from the queue. If the queue is empty, return -1.
• enQueue(value): Insert an element into the circular queue. Return true if the operation is successful.
• deQueue(): Delete an element from the circular queue. Return true if the operation is successful.
• isEmpty(): Checks whether the circular queue is empty or not.
• isFull(): Checks whether the circular queue is full or not.

Example:

MyCircularQueue circularQueue = new MyCircularQueue(3); // set the size to be 3
circularQueue.enQueue(1);  // return true
circularQueue.enQueue(2);  // return true
circularQueue.enQueue(3);  // return true
circularQueue.enQueue(4);  // return false, the queue is full
circularQueue.Rear();  // return 3
circularQueue.isFull();  // return true
circularQueue.deQueue();  // return true
circularQueue.enQueue(4);  // return true
circularQueue.Rear();  // return 4


Note:

• All values will be in the range of [0, 1000].
• The number of operations will be in the range of [1, 1000].
• Please do not use the built-in Queue library.

## Solution

Use an array to act as a queue and store the elements. Besides the array that is a data field of the class MyCircularQueue, the other data fields include capacity which is the capacity of the queue, start and end which are the indices of the first element and the last element, and size which is the number of elements in the queue.

For the constructor, given capacity k, initialize the array to be an array of length k and filled with -1, set capacity = k, and set start, end and size to 0.

For method enQueue, return false if the queue is full (checked by calling isFull). If size == 0, then set both start to end to 0. Otherwise, move end one step forward (note that the queue is circular, so if end was previously capacity - 1, then end will become 0 after moving one step forward). Set the element at index end in the array to be the given value, increase size by 1, and return true.

For method deQueue, return false if the queue is empty (checked by calling isEmpty). Set the element at index start to -1, move start one step forward (note that the queue is circular, so if start was previously capacity - 1, then start will become 0 after moving one step forward), decrease size by 1, and return true.

For method Front, return the element at index start.

For method Rear, return the element at index end.

For method isEmpty, return true if and only if size == 0.

For method isFull, return true if and only if size == capacity.