# 2926. Maximum Balanced Subsequence Sum

## Description

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums.

A subsequence of nums having length k and consisting of indices i0 < i1 < ... < ik-1 is balanced if the following holds:

• nums[ij] - nums[ij-1] >= ij - ij-1, for every j in the range [1, k - 1].

A subsequence of nums having length 1 is considered balanced.

Return an integer denoting the maximum possible sum of elements in a balanced subsequence of nums.

A subsequence of an array is a new non-empty array that is formed from the original array by deleting some (possibly none) of the elements without disturbing the relative positions of the remaining elements.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [3,3,5,6]
Output: 14
Explanation: In this example, the subsequence [3,5,6] consisting of indices 0, 2, and 3 can be selected.
nums[2] - nums[0] >= 2 - 0.
nums[3] - nums[2] >= 3 - 2.
Hence, it is a balanced subsequence, and its sum is the maximum among the balanced subsequences of nums.
The subsequence consisting of indices 1, 2, and 3 is also valid.
It can be shown that it is not possible to get a balanced subsequence with a sum greater than 14.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,-1,-3,8]
Output: 13
Explanation: In this example, the subsequence [5,8] consisting of indices 0 and 3 can be selected.
nums[3] - nums[0] >= 3 - 0.
Hence, it is a balanced subsequence, and its sum is the maximum among the balanced subsequences of nums.
It can be shown that it is not possible to get a balanced subsequence with a sum greater than 13.


Example 3:

Input: nums = [-2,-1]
Output: -1
Explanation: In this example, the subsequence [-1] can be selected.
It is a balanced subsequence, and its sum is the maximum among the balanced subsequences of nums.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• -109 <= nums[i] <= 109

## Solutions

• class BinaryIndexedTree {
private int n;
private long[] c;
private final long inf = 1L << 60;

public BinaryIndexedTree(int n) {
this.n = n;
c = new long[n + 1];
Arrays.fill(c, -inf);
}

public void update(int x, long v) {
while (x <= n) {
c[x] = Math.max(c[x], v);
x += x & -x;
}
}

public long query(int x) {
long mx = -inf;
while (x > 0) {
mx = Math.max(mx, c[x]);
x -= x & -x;
}
return mx;
}
}

class Solution {
public long maxBalancedSubsequenceSum(int[] nums) {
int n = nums.length;
int[] arr = new int[n];
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
arr[i] = nums[i] - i;
}
Arrays.sort(arr);
int m = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
if (i == 0 || arr[i] != arr[i - 1]) {
arr[m++] = arr[i];
}
}
BinaryIndexedTree tree = new BinaryIndexedTree(m);
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
int j = search(arr, nums[i] - i, m) + 1;
long v = Math.max(tree.query(j), 0) + nums[i];
tree.update(j, v);
}
return tree.query(m);
}

private int search(int[] nums, int x, int r) {
int l = 0;
while (l < r) {
int mid = (l + r) >> 1;
if (nums[mid] >= x) {
r = mid;
} else {
l = mid + 1;
}
}
return l;
}
}

• class BinaryIndexedTree {
private:
int n;
vector<long long> c;
const long long inf = 1e18;

public:
BinaryIndexedTree(int n) {
this->n = n;
c.resize(n + 1, -inf);
}

void update(int x, long long v) {
while (x <= n) {
c[x] = max(c[x], v);
x += x & -x;
}
}

long long query(int x) {
long long mx = -inf;
while (x > 0) {
mx = max(mx, c[x]);
x -= x & -x;
}
return mx;
}
};

class Solution {
public:
long long maxBalancedSubsequenceSum(vector<int>& nums) {
int n = nums.size();
vector<int> arr(n);
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
arr[i] = nums[i] - i;
}
sort(arr.begin(), arr.end());
arr.erase(unique(arr.begin(), arr.end()), arr.end());
int m = arr.size();
BinaryIndexedTree tree(m);
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
int j = lower_bound(arr.begin(), arr.end(), nums[i] - i) - arr.begin() + 1;
long long v = max(tree.query(j), 0LL) + nums[i];
tree.update(j, v);
}
return tree.query(m);
}
};

• class BinaryIndexedTree:
def __init__(self, n: int):
self.n = n
self.c = [-inf] * (n + 1)

def update(self, x: int, v: int):
while x <= self.n:
self.c[x] = max(self.c[x], v)
x += x & -x

def query(self, x: int) -> int:
mx = -inf
while x:
mx = max(mx, self.c[x])
x -= x & -x
return mx

class Solution:
def maxBalancedSubsequenceSum(self, nums: List[int]) -> int:
arr = [x - i for i, x in enumerate(nums)]
s = sorted(set(arr))
tree = BinaryIndexedTree(len(s))
for i, x in enumerate(nums):
j = bisect_left(s, x - i) + 1
v = max(tree.query(j), 0) + x
tree.update(j, v)
return tree.query(len(s))


• const inf int = 1e18

type BinaryIndexedTree struct {
n int
c []int
}

func NewBinaryIndexedTree(n int) BinaryIndexedTree {
c := make([]int, n+1)
for i := range c {
c[i] = -inf
}
return BinaryIndexedTree{n: n, c: c}
}

func (bit *BinaryIndexedTree) update(x, v int) {
for x <= bit.n {
bit.c[x] = max(bit.c[x], v)
x += x & -x
}
}

func (bit *BinaryIndexedTree) query(x int) int {
mx := -inf
for x > 0 {
mx = max(mx, bit.c[x])
x -= x & -x
}
return mx
}

func maxBalancedSubsequenceSum(nums []int) int64 {
n := len(nums)
arr := make([]int, n)
for i, x := range nums {
arr[i] = x - i
}
sort.Ints(arr)
m := 0
for i, x := range arr {
if i == 0 || x != arr[i-1] {
arr[m] = x
m++
}
}
arr = arr[:m]
tree := NewBinaryIndexedTree(m)
for i, x := range nums {
j := sort.SearchInts(arr, x-i) + 1
v := max(tree.query(j), 0) + x
tree.update(j, v)
}
return int64(tree.query(m))
}

• class BinaryIndexedTree {
private n: number;
private c: number[];

constructor(n: number) {
this.n = n;
this.c = Array(n + 1).fill(-Infinity);
}

update(x: number, v: number): void {
while (x <= this.n) {
this.c[x] = Math.max(this.c[x], v);
x += x & -x;
}
}

query(x: number): number {
let mx = -Infinity;
while (x > 0) {
mx = Math.max(mx, this.c[x]);
x -= x & -x;
}
return mx;
}
}

function maxBalancedSubsequenceSum(nums: number[]): number {
const n = nums.length;
const arr = Array(n).fill(0);
for (let i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
arr[i] = nums[i] - i;
}
arr.sort((a, b) => a - b);
let m = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
if (i === 0 || arr[i] !== arr[i - 1]) {
arr[m++] = arr[i];
}
}
arr.length = m;
const tree = new BinaryIndexedTree(m);
const search = (nums: number[], x: number): number => {
let [l, r] = [0, nums.length];
while (l < r) {
const mid = (l + r) >> 1;
if (nums[mid] >= x) {
r = mid;
} else {
l = mid + 1;
}
}
return l;
};
for (let i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
const j = search(arr, nums[i] - i) + 1;
const v = Math.max(tree.query(j), 0) + nums[i];
tree.update(j, v);
}
return tree.query(m);
}