Formatted question description: https://leetcode.ca/all/2195.html

# 2195. Append K Integers With Minimal Sum (Medium)

You are given an integer array nums and an integer k. Append k unique positive integers that do not appear in nums to nums such that the resulting total sum is minimum.

Return the sum of the k integers appended to nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,4,25,10,25], k = 2
Output: 5
Explanation: The two unique positive integers that do not appear in nums which we append are 2 and 3.
The resulting sum of nums is 1 + 4 + 25 + 10 + 25 + 2 + 3 = 70, which is the minimum.
The sum of the two integers appended is 2 + 3 = 5, so we return 5.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,6], k = 6
Output: 25
Explanation: The six unique positive integers that do not appear in nums which we append are 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8.
The resulting sum of nums is 5 + 6 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 = 36, which is the minimum.
The sum of the six integers appended is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 = 25, so we return 25.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i], k <= 109

Similar Questions:

## Solution 1. Sorting

Intuition: Sort the array. Traverse from left to right, sum up the missing numbers between A[i-1] and A[i] until we’ve used k missing numbers.

Algorithm:

For a given A[i], the previous number prev is A[i-1] or 0 if A[i-1] doesn’t exist.

There are cnt = min(k, max(0, A[i] - prev - 1)) missing numbers inbetween, i.e. from prev+1 to prev+cnt. The sum of these numbers is (prev+1 + prev+cnt) * cnt / 2.

If there are still k missing numbers after traversing the array, the rest of the missing numbers are A[N-1]+1 to A[N-1]+k. The sum of them is (A[N-1]+1 + A[N-1]+k) * k / 2.

// OJ: https://leetcode.com/problems/append-k-integers-with-minimal-sum/

// Time: O(NlogN)
// Space: O(1)
class Solution {
public:
long long minimalKSum(vector<int>& A, int k) {
sort(begin(A), end(A));
long ans = 0, N = A.size();
for (int i = 0; i < N && k; ++i) {
long prev = i == 0 ? 0 : A[i - 1]; // the previous number
long cnt = min((long)k, max((long)0, A[i] - prev - 1)); // the count of missing numbers between prev and A[i]
k -= cnt; // use these cnt missing numbers
ans += (long)(prev + 1 + prev + cnt) * cnt / 2; // sum of these cnt missing numbers [prev+1, prev+cnt].
}
if (k > 0) ans += ((long)A.back() + 1 + A.back() + k) * k / 2; // If there are still missing numbers, add the sum of numbers[A.back()+1, A.back()+k] to answer
return ans;
}
};


## Discuss

https://leetcode.com/problems/append-k-integers-with-minimal-sum/discuss/1823619/